Low spots in the field have softer soils, causing problems of seed emergence. These spots tend to hold water longer; snails can group together in these spots as the field dries.
Flooded fields lead to abnormal plant growth. It limits oxygen and sunlight, thus limiting the plants' food
Rice varieties of different genetic makeup do not damage the plant. Despite the normal plant growth, there are apparent abnormalities in features.
Feeding damage caused by short-horned grasshoppers and oriental migratory locusts result to cut out areas on leaves and cut-off panicles. They both feed on leaf margins
Green leafhoppers are the most common leafhoppers in rice fields and are primarily important because they spread the viral disease tungro
Young larvae of semiloopers scrape the tissues from leaf blades, while mature larvae feed on leaf edges to create notches
Larvae of green horned caterpillars feed on leaf margins and leaf blades. The feeding damage causes removal of leaf tissues and veins
When rice fields experience heavy rainfall, freshly seeded fields tend to have poor distribution, germination, and emergence.
Scald is a fungal disease which causes the scalded appearance of leaves
Mealybugs remove plant sap by sucking, resulting to curling of leaves and wilting of plants
When fields have mixed variety, rice plants have different maturity periods. There are also differences in grain filling and moisture at the time of harvest.
Mole crickets feed on seeds, tillers in mature plants, and roots. They can cut plants at the base resulting to loss of plant stand
Muddy water reduces oxygen supply for the germinating seed, thus leading to low crop establishment.
Narrow brown spot can lead to premature death of leaves and leaf sheaths, premature ripening of grains, and in severe cases, lodging of plants
Brown planthoppers also transmit Rice Ragged Stunt and Rice Grassy Stunt viruses.
When seeds are poorly distributed, either crop stand of plants becomes too dense or have spaces in between when plants are too few.
Poor seed quality leads to low vigor and poor growth. They are also prone to weeds, insects, and diseases.
Poorly transplanted plants have inadequate plant stand
Rice field rats cut or pull up transplanted plants. They also chop young seedlings. At ripening stage, they feed on developing rice buds
Red stripe causes formation of lesions on leaves. It usually occurs when the plants reach the reproductive stage
IRRI Super Bag
IRRI Rice Quality Assessment Kit
Leaf Color Chart
IRRI Moisture Meter
Measuring moisture content in milling
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