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Term Definition

A porous structure in the stem and roots of plants adapted to water-logged environments. Gases, like oxygen and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, pass through the aerenchyma to the plant roots and vice versa.


in the presence of oxygen; Any organism needing oxygen to survive is called aerobic. An organism growing without oxygen is anaerobic.


lacking the presence of free oxygen

crop failure

The result of a crop with little or no yield. Some causes of crop failure can be avoided with intervention (i.e.fertilizer, irrigation, good management) while others may not be (i.e. catastrophic weather event causing flooding or drought). Causes of crop failure often depend on the area and rice ecosystem.


A traditional method of planting where a pointed stick is used to make a hole in the ground. Seeds are placed in the hole and then covered.


The process where molecules spread from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration.


When excess nutrients (particularly phosphorus and/or nitrogen) cause abundant biological growth in an aquatic ecosystem. Excess growth can result in oxygen depletion that is harmful or fatal to other organisms.

facultative anaerobe

An organism that can survive with or without oxygen


When soluble materials are moved (usually downward) in soil because of water movement.


A complex carbon compound that is part of the rigid cell wall in plants.


A method of rice production where soil is submerged for part or all of the growing season. Lowland rice production can be irrigated or rainfed and typically involves puddling of soil. Refer to Module 1 Lessons 1, 2, & 3 for more information.


Roundworms of the Nematoda phylum which live freely or as parasites in soil, water, and inside other organisms.

nitrogen fixation

A natural process where dinitrogen gas (N2) from the atmosphere is converted or 'fixed' into a form used by plants. This is accomplished by a group of microorganisms called diazotrophs.

obligate anaerobe

An organism that can NOT live in the presence of oxygen.


A reaction where an ion or molecule loses an electron. This often happens through the gain of oxygen or loss of a hydrogen ion. See Module 2 Lesson 4 for an example.

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