|The Disease: BAKANAE and FOOT ROT|
Anamorph: Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon
Teleomorph: Gibberella fujikuroi(Sawada) Ito (Ito and Kimura, 1931)
Etymology: from Latin mille - necklace, collar)
Bakanae is widely distributed in all rice-growing areas. Its name varies in different countries. In the Philippines it is called as palay lalake (male rice); in China, white stalk and in Guyana, man rice. In India, Thomas (1931, 1933) described it as foot rot disease.
Loss reports vary widely, 3.7 - 50.0% (Ito and Kimura 1931, Kinki-Chugoku Regional Agricultural Committee 1975, Pavgi and Singh 1964)
|Symptoms: The most visible symptom is the bakanae tillers, which are highly elongated and can be seen from the distance in fields and seedbed. Diseased plants appear abnormally elongated, thin, and yellow green compared to with other plants. Diseased plants may be distributed irregularly in an infected fiedl. In the seedbed, heavily infected seedlings with necrotic lesions on roots die before or after transplanting. White powdery growths of conidiophores can be seen over the lower regions of the diseased plants. Diseased plants bear few tillers and their leaves dry up quickly. The diseased plants survive but bear empty panicles. Giberella fujikuroi may also produce perithecia under certain environmental conditions (Sun and Synder, 1978).